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Art 2. Antiques 1. Format see all Format. All listings filter applied. By the second half of the century the Greenwich style h a d developed. A form of a r m e t that h a d first a p p e a r e d in Germany was developed after a b o u t , whereby the tail b e c a m e wider a n d the cheek-pieces h i n g e d to it at their rear edges, a style seen until a b o u t , despite the closehelmet's increasing popularity elsewhere. Greenwich visors h a d a gracefully curved prow like that of a ship, a n d for ventilation t h e r e were usually vertical slits each pierced by a hole.
O t h e r features are discussed in the Plates section. The garniture W h e n m e n of r a n k wanted to take part in t o u r n a m e n t s , they might require a r m o u r s for several types of contest: the tourney, jousts a n d foot combats, n o t to m e n t i o n harness designed for use in battle either m o u n t e d or on foot. All this could be extremely expensive, a n d a r o u n d a new solution was b e g i n n i n g to appear: the garniture. This was in effect a set of interchangeable parts that allowed armours to be m a d e u p for a variety of uses.
T h e individual pieces of the garniture were often d e c o r a t e d e n suite. It is designed to shatter on impact, and to that end is partially hollow inside and fluted on the outside. The leather strip nailed round the butt behind the waisted grip was designed to ram against the lance-rest to prevent the weapon sliding through the armpit. In the early 16th century this was sometimes d o n e by engraving with a sharp burin a metal cutting tool with a sharp bevelled point.
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However, etching was already being used to decorate metal with less effort and would become the main technique, though in the last quarter some armours might be decorated by designs on shaped punches. In etching a mild acid such as vinegar ate away part of the surface to p r o d u c e the required decoration, after coating the surface to be decorated with a protective 'resist' wax or paint a n d cutting the design t h r o u g h the resist with a needle to expose the metal. T h e second method, used from about in Germany a n d a decade later in Italy, involved coating areas to be left u n t o u c h e d with a resist applied by brush, a n d only using a needle for fine detail.
A granular effect could be obtained by liberally covering a surface with small dots of wax, a typically Germanic style as opposed to the plain g r o u n d initially used by the Italians. Thus larger etched areas were m o r e easily achieved, a n d this became the main way to etch armour. Greenwich armours were at first etched in Italian style b u t after in German style, with native English designs.
Etched decoration was frequently e n h a n c e d by mercury gilding, a n amalgam of gold a n d mercury being painted o n to the desired area a n d the mercury h e a t e d to chase it off, leaving the gold fused to the surface. More rarely gold m i g h t be applied as gold leaf, whereby the surface was h a t c h e d to make the leaf stick w h e n it was laid on a n d burnished. Silver foil was also sometimes a d d e d this way, the most famous example being Henry VIII's armour for man and horse of about Gilding was usually applied to borders or as decorative bands.
Sometimes the gilding was only applied to the ground, leaving the raised design in steel, or the ground and the design lines were blackened more a German feature. The surface might be further enhanced by controlled heating of the steel to produce a beautiful deep blue or russet red. An easier method of colouring was to paint the surface, commonly in black, leaving areas of natural steel to produce what is called 'black-and-white' armour.
This was especially popular in Germany but uncommon amongst men of rank in England. Another uncommon form of decoration was embossing: raising a design by hammering from the underside of the metal. This obviously dispensed with the smooth surface necessary to make weapon points glance off, and was used rather for parade items. Embossing was also employed to produce the grotesque masks used on some tourney helmet visors, though this was much more popular in Germany.
Damascening entailed cutting channels along the design lines and filling these with gold or silver strips hammered into place. Damascening was often used in conjunction with embossing, but the process was rare in England. The practice of applying precious jewels, enamels, or gold or silver plates to helmets was still very occasionally seen in the early 16th century. Arms The sword The sword remained the favoured arm of the gentleman.
For defence of the realm, Henry constructed a series of forts such as this one, basically gun platforms with low circular towers and rounded battlements to present a small, deflective target to cannonballs. Unlike a true castle, nobody used it as a home; it simply housed a garrison and commander. Cavalry screen the main bodies. Permission British Library 22 blades, but were wide enough to deliver a lethal cut from the sharpened edges.
The hilt was still essentially a simple cross, the wooden grip bound in cloth or leather and often overlaid by cords or wire either twined round or in a lattice, to help prevent the weapon slipping in the hand. A pommel at the end helped prevent the hand sliding off but more importantly provided a counterbalance to the blade, so that the point of balance was as near to the hand as possible; this made the sword less point-heavy and less tiring to use. Several styles of pommel had been developed, from a simple disc or flanged wheel to a scent-bottle style.
This type of cross-hilt continued to be worn with armour by a few enthusiasts until after the third quarter of the 16th century. However, by the beginning of the century some infantry swords had already developed a half loop or a ring to guard the finger hooked over the blunted first section of blade to assist a swing. This form was then seen on the swords of gentlemen. By midcentury swords usually had finger-rings and side-rings, but frequently lacked the knuckle-guards and displayed none of the diagonal guards popular in Continental Europe.
The estoc was also known in England as the tuck. The blade sometimes had three or even four unsharpened sides to produce a very stiff weapon for maximum thrust. Ordinary followers might simply have sword and buckler. Smiths put their name or mark on the blade but some added the name of a famous smith or centre of manufacture to fool the unwary. A sword knot of cord or ribbon, forming a loop ending in a tassel, was occasionally added; it could slip over the hand to prevent loss. It was sometimes added either through a hole in the pommel or more commonly round the grip. Wearing the sword The scabbard was made from two strips of wood covered in leather, cloth or velvet.
The covering may sometimes have been made to match a man's clothing, for several are recorded for one sword. A metal chape reinforced the scabbard tip but a locket guarding the mouth was rare. On many scabbards the sides of the mouth were cut away, leaving a piece of the wood at front and back to slip up between the guards and over the ricasso the dull part of the blade right above the hilt. Elaborate belts were developed to sling the sword from a convenient angle and to prevent the wearer from tripping over it.
Early belts followed medieval practice, with three straps or slings to the waist belt, the two rearmost joining the waist belt to the rear; sometimes a single strap here bifurcated to form two connecting points to the scabbard.
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The front strap usually had an adjusting buckle, and a small hook connecting the strap to a ring on the waist belt became common. However, largely after the front sling called a 'side-piece' now crossed the stomach to join the waist belt on the right. The central waistbuckle began to move round to the right hip, and a ring attached to the lower part of a slide replaced the ring on the waist belt.
However, some never changed from the left-of-centre attachment. At about the same time the rear scabbard slings were given ring attachments to the waist belt; often now these slings joined at the top and used a single hook. Increasingly, each sling was fitted with a slide and the lower end of the sling, having wrapped round the scabbard, was stitched to the central bar of the slide; the scabbard's weight ensured the loop was pulled tight. In the second half of the century the rear slings became joined into a single broad sling of leather or stuff - the hanger - its lower edge divided into as many as 12 straps with slides, wrapped round the scabbard.
The sidepiece was permanently attached to a leading corner. Hangers were often embroidered to match costume or sword hilt. At first heater-shaped, at the end of the century round-topped versions appeared. At the turn of the 17th century a few swords were worn with knuckle-guard upwards. Two cuts in the covering below the mouth allowed smaller scabbards to be inserted that held one or more by-knives and a bodkin.
These seem to have sometimes been worn on the inner side or could instead be set in the dagger sheath. The bodkin may have been used to pierce eyelet holes for points. Perhaps in the second quarter of the 16th century a transverse rib developed below the knives, to stop the scabbard sliding through the hanger.
The wheeled triangular-covered objects are small artillery pieces called 'shrimps'. He wears a cloth base and carries a shattered lance. Permission British Library, Ms Augustus Ilia From the baldric became an alternative way to carry the sword when worn with armour, but it was advisable to wear a waist sash to stop the sword swinging about. In the s and s it was fashionable to wear a matching cloth pouch on the right side, with a metal mount at the mouth, to which was attached the suspension loop. If worn with armour a flap was buttoned over the mouth and the mount discarded.
By the end of the 15th century a sword was increasingly worn with civilian costume and was common after It now became popular for duelling. The latter had been a way of settling disputes for centuries, but for men of rank it had usually been done in full armour in the lists. Now duels on foot between men in civilian dress became more popular: a way to settle disputes without resorting to expensive equipment.
The duelling sword did not need to be as sturdy as a military weapon, since it would be used against an un-armoured opponent; therefore the blade was lighter and grips developed to guard the unprotected hand. The early rapier was simply a long civilian sword whose edged blade might be wider than that of a tuck. It was not until mid-century that the word came to refer to a purely thrusting sword.
This move, as opposed to the cut, was now favoured and promoted by Italian fencing masters, where the science of duelling had developed. Those wishing to learn might also consult the manuals such masters produced, and the skill was later also taken up by Spanish masters. Unlike the military sword, civilian weapons did follow European fashion in developing a more complicated hilt, partly because duellists were un-armoured.
Hilts were sometimes simply bright steel, or could be blued by heat treatment or fire-gilt. They might be inlaid with silver plates decorated in relief or with strips along the guards, chiselled or pierced. Engraved silver plates might also be riveted on. The steel could be decorated by chiselling; in the first part of the century a roped design and animal heads were the usual styles. Damascening was sometimes used but counterfeit damascening inlaying the wire into hatching was far more common. Encrusting like damascening but with the precious metal left proud and then engraved or chiselled first appeared on chiselled hilts mid-century and was the commonest decoration by Occasionally enamel was employed.
Perhaps the most famous fencing master in England in the later 16th century was the London master, George Silver, who published a treatise entitled Paradoxes of Defence in Silver notes that Italian teachers maintained the English would not hook their forefinger over the cross nor lay the thumb on the blade or the hand on the pommel, because the English hilts lacked protective finger rings; therefore they could not thrust straight. They probably did hook the finger if using an Italian style of hilt.
The opponent's blade might be warded by the left hand or with the cloak wrapped round the arm, which could also be used to envelope the blade. By mid-century, however, a dagger was often carried in the left hand specifically to engage an opponent's sword. The dagger was fitted with a simple cross-guard and a shell-guard or ring-guard for the first finger.
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This had a hilt that was shaped like an 'I' made from cast metal and decorated with strap work and faces. The sheath was of ornamented metal, sometimes of intricate pierced design. By about a Scottish style of dagger was reportedly popular. A matching sword and dagger might be ordered by wealthier men, the dagger with simple cross-guard and a ring-guard - or, in the second half of the century, a shell - on the outside.
The rapier When in civilian dress, knights now sometimes wore a rapier. Much ink was spilt at the time in assessing whether the traditional sword or the English tuck was better than these weapons. Lined with small overlapping plates, men of rank covered the front with rich material such as silk or satin, whilst the rivet heads were of tinned iron or gilt latten.
At first it was fastened down the front or one or both sides and over the shoulders, by straps and buckles or lacing; some were laced down the front and sides. By the second quarter of the century side and shoulder fastenings were usual. A sprung stud locks the visor. Author's illustration draw in the press of battle or a horseman to draw unless he lets his rein fall, and is not therefore a military weapon. Moreover, the blade was so hard and narrow that it broke when it struck armour.
Tucks, however, with their foursquare thrusting blades, he notes as sometimes worn on horseback by men-at-arms and demi-lances, under their thighs in the Hungarian or Turkish manner. George Silver disliked rapiers, referring to them as 'bird-spits' and, echoing Smythe, he lists all the things they cannot do in battle: pierce a corselet with the point, unlace a helmet, unbuckle armour or cut through pikes.
He considers them unsuitable for cutting, excessively long and with inadequate guards. He says that many skilled men using them are wounded because they cannot uncross the weapon without stepping back. Nevertheless, rapiers were becoming popular for wear with civilian dress and their owners had to be trained in their use. For this they went to the foreign fencing masters who were setting up schools in London and who may have provided a further reason for Silver's hostility to the new weapon.
The Articles for the due execution of the Statutes of Appareil, of 6 May , was based on a proclamation of Nobody under the rank of knight was to wear gilt spurs or damascened or gilt sword, rapier or dagger, upon pain of forfeiture and imprisonment and fine. It also stated that no man was to wear a sword, rapier or other weapon over 'one yard and halfe a quarter of blade, at the vttermost: neither any Dagger aboue the length of xii inches in blade: neither any Buckler, with a sharpe point, or with any point aboue two ynches of length'. Forfeiture, imprisonment and fine were the penalty.
Officers were empowered to cut down blades exceeding permitted lengths and might be stationed at town gates; in they nearly caused a diplomatic incident when they stopped the French ambassador at the bars at Smithfield, to the fury of the Queen. Daggers and other weapons Daggers were carried in a sheath on the right side, two staples on the locket attaching to the waist belt. After about the dagger was usually worn well back. In some cases the locket had a ring either side for two cords with a tassel, 'a venecian tassel of sylke' as Thomas Becon calls it mid-century.
Robert, Earl of Leicester, had cords of silver and gold, blue and gold, black and gold, and crimson silk and gold with matching tassels. Chains, ribbons or a large bow were also seen. Some lockets were also made to take byknives and a bodkin. False scabbards were common, being leather cases made to cover a sword or rapier scabbard tightly but did not enclose the hilt itself.
The hand-and-a-half-sword, or bastard sword, continued in use but now even longer weapons were becoming more common. The fearsome-looking twohand sword was largely designed for infantry use in cutting through ranks of pike shafts to allow those following to break into the enemy formation.
The base of the blade might be furnished with two lugs to stop an enemy weapon sliding down, this portion often covered in leather to provide a grip. The horseman's hammer now often had a steel shaft to prevent cutting, fitted with a hammer-head backed by a diamond-sectioned spike. Maces were more rare, fitted with triangular or curved tubular flanges. Richer examples might be decorated, for example with silver or gold damascening on a blued or russeted ground. The two royal bodyguards, the Gentlemen-at-Arms and the Yeomen of the Guard, carried pollaxes and partisans respectively on State occasions.
Firearms The principal gun used by the gentry was the wheellock, which used the spinning action of an abrasive wheel against a piece of iron pyrites to create sparks. The great advantage of the wheellock was that it could be wound up ready for action so that the pistol could be discharged swiftly. For military use a pair of pistols was carried in leather holsters at the saddle bow, but a man of rank would only use these when serving as a captain of cavalry. The other form of lock was the snaphance, in which a flint struck the face of a steel mounted on a pivoted arm.
He wears a loose heraldic tabard over his armour. The snaphance was cheaper than the wheellock, which also had the disadvantage of having the main moving parts inside the breech, making servicing difficult in the field, especially as the parts could break if roughly handled. The English did not at first take up the idea of the cartridge, whereby the powder and ball were tied in a paper cartridge, though from midcentury it began to appear in mainland Europe. Novelty combination weapons were very occasionally carried, such as swords fitted with a small pistol in the hilt, or horseman's hammers combined with a wheellock pistol similarly firing through the end of the grip.
Sumptuary laws of Henry VIII Sumptuary laws were designed to ensure that men's position in society was reflected in their dress and appearance. The cuirass has an anime breastplate and he wears a close helmet of burgonet form. This is the most complete Greenwich garniture to survive. Originally the steel was bright, being decorated with etching and gilding. Glasgow City Council [Museums] and t h e n only in their mantles.
N o n e shall wear Barons, all above that rank, Knights of the Garter, a n d Privy Councillors. Baron's Sons, all above that rank, G e n t l e m e n attending the Q u e e n , Knights a n d Captains. Knights, all above that rank, and their heirs apparent. Knight's Eldest Sons a n d all above that rank. At the beginning of the 16th century horses b r e d for war were similar to those of the previous century, stallions that were deepchested for good windage, with solid quarters a n d a thick neck yet still reasonably nimble.
In o r d e r to highlight his importance in foreign eyes especially, H e n r y VIII sent m e n to find horses in Italy. For the Field of Cloth of Gold in H e n r y chose a Neapolitan, b u t his stables also contained a Frieslander bay from the duke of Mantua, a horse of the b r e e d of Isabella, Duchess of Milan, from the duke of Ferrara a n d 25 Spanish m o u n t s from E m p e r o r Charles V.
Acts were passed to force every owner of an enclosed park to keep two mares in it, each at least of 13 h a n d s , to forbid any stallion less t h a n 15 h a n d s a n d over the age of two from being placed in areas where mares a n d fillies were kept a n d to force the nobility to k e e p specific quotas of horses T h e G e n t l e m e n Pensioners created by H e n r y also h a d to keep studs, a n d many received parks taken from dissolved monasteries. Sir Nicholas A r n o l d received such a p a r k at H i g h n a m , seized from Gloucester, where h e m a i n t a i n e d Neapolitan warhorses a n d animals from Flanders.
Maintaining a stud was n o t cheap, n o t least because fencing, gates a n d walls h a d to b e m a i n t a i n e d to ensure that only desired stallions covered the mares. Several of the Pensioners wrote treatises o n horse b r e e d i n g a n d m a n a g e m e n t that reveal Italian ways of thinking that were themselves based o n X e n o p h o n ' s Hippike.
O t h e r m e n of position also favoured Italian m e t h o d s to m a n a g e their horses Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, i m p o r t e d a Pavian riding-master, Claudio Corte, d u r i n g his time as Master of Horse a n d o n e Pensioner, Sir T h o m a s Bedingfield, translated Corte's work. Federigo Grisone published his Rules of Horsemanship in Naples ; this was translated in England a n d p r e s e n t e d to Dudley. However, Elizabeth railed against p o o r horse b r e e d i n g a n d issued several proclamations.
T h e new ideas of less powerful b u t m o r e agile horses for war were gaining g r o u n d b u t never in the 16th century ousted the traditional warhorse that carried fully a r m o u r e d m e n , especially in the tilt. More emphasis was now placed on teaching movements such as the croupade where the back kick is p e r f o r m e d when the animal has j u m p e d into the air. This new ' m a n a g e m e n t ' was increasingly popular; Corte advocated the use of rings to train a n d exercise horses: 'for skirmish, for battell, a n d for combate, either offending or defending.
It is also a comelie sight in the rider, a n d standeth him in steed for the exercise of the turneie, a n d all o t h e r feates of armes. By the e n d of the century Arabs, Barbs or Spanish J e n n e t s were increasingly used in E u r o p e a n studs to p r o d u c e elegant yet swift, strong m o u n t s. M e n of rank m i g h t also be contracted for special duties: Willoughby in was primarily n o m i n a t e d to be master of the o r d n a n c e a n d artillery. Knights also led scouting parties of cavalry, as in w h e n Sir J o h n Neville espied the F r e n c h gathering to l a u n c h a relief attempt d u r i n g the siege of Therouanne, their company being blundered into by the earl of Essex and Sir John Peachy while Neville was reporting his findings.
However, this force played a significant role in the siege of the city that followed. In Sir Philip Sidney, appointed by Elizabeth to be governor of Flushing in the Netherlands, died of a musket wound in the thigh received at a skirmish against the Spanish at Zutphen. On the march Roger Williams in his Briefe Discourse says that few captains would force men to march over 15 miles without a break. Troops marched in various formations but it is difficult to know if the flank guards marched in line abreast or in column.
Certainly the three wards, van, middle and rear, were used even when transporting the army across the Channel. It made it easier to unload large numbers of men from one ward and have them move off before the next batch of ships arrived. In open country three regiments followed one another, preceded by shot, flanked by archers and columns of artillery, while cavalry screened the army. If a retreat was necessary, Audley's advice was to face the enemy.
Turning and running was asking to be cut up without being able to defend oneself. Experiences in the field depended on forward planning and the stamp of the leaders. Low, thick earth banks faced with stone walls absorbed cannonballs; they were set with broad arrow bastions allowing guns to criss-cross their fire and rake the ditches.
Author's collection 31 because Ferdinand changed his mind. At the inquest the leaders were kept on their knees until they begged to stand, and were proved guilty. Rations and supply The army's rations highlighted differences in rank. The ordinary soldiers ate the hardest bread, multi-coloured butter and flyblown meat. The knights and lords ate the finer white bread and fresher butter and meat. While they might drink fine wines, the rank and file were sustained on daily rations of beer and ale, safer to drink than water.
However, over-imbibing in Spain led to a revolt by men under Dorset while on an expedition in The armies that invaded the Continent were too large to live off the land alone and thus supply trains were a necessity. Men of rank found themselves in charge of escorting these vital parts of Henry's military machine, and not without incident, for the French chose to target them instead of risking pitched battle.
In daily convoys from Calais supplied the English van and rear camped near Therouanne, as they waited for the arrival of the middle ward, one of which convoys was seized. This is a hybrid form with elements of both close-helmet and burgonet helmet styles. Keeping garrisons fed in Ireland or the Netherlands was difficult. As soon as Leicester arrived in the Low Countries he sent to England for rations so that food was available in case there were weather problems later with short notice requests.
Replacing deserters, or sick or deceased soldiers, was a headache for captains. Short campaigns were less of a problem than areas in permanent occupation, such as Ireland or the Netherlands, where levies had to be sent from England. Walsingham reckoned that about 1, men could be found by recruiting English volunteers from Dutch regiments. In the Privy Council ruled that the captain should be responsible for immediate replacement of anyone leaving the company.
Funding for a new man was provided as a man's pay for a month and came from fines taken for deficiencies of equipment. However, this replacement had to take place within two months and the recruit be notified to the muster master. The uniform allowance for the lost soldier was also provided gauged at the beginning of the season to his departure date to pay for equipment and arms.
Wherever possible this money was only paid out once the new man was with the company. In Ireland civilians were offered enrolment so numbers were not a problem, except that the companies lacked English soldiers. Clothing of levies depended partly on the lord lieutenant. The white coats of Henry VIII's time gave way to uniforms of many hues; costs and provision of coats was down to the county. In the Netherlands officers had a doublet of Milan fustian faced with taffeta, a pair of broadcloth Venetians trimmed with silk and lined with cotton and linen, and worsted stockings.
For winter wear there was a broadcloth cassock lined with baize and faced with taffeta. Buckhurst thought that only colonels and above should be allowed silk and lace; captains should make do with fustian, cloth and canvas and spend on arms rather than clothing. Digges and Cecil commented adversely on the captains' love of silks and jewels. Early in Elizabeth's reign 'coat money' was paid for uniform and 'conduct money' for expenses from point of assembly to point of embarkation.
Corruption was noted in many places - some captains purloined clothing allowances. Eventually they were stopped from being involved in uniform distribution. Corruption in the army Corruption was the biggest drawback to making Elizabeth's army noteworthy; it was found from the highest to the lowest levels, but was endemic amongst the officers, including men of rank.
The pauldrons, now attached to the vambraces, are buckled to the collar. Leather tabs called pickadils can be seen around the edges.
Tougher demands were balanced by more concern for ordinary soldiers. Musters gave captains opportunities for selling releases. Lords lieutenant organised musters but where there were none commissioners were deferred to, selected from justices of the peace and other prominent gentlemen and commissioned by the Queen with a detailed set of instructions. Unfortunately captains used their time to enrich themselves and made it hard for any honest muster-master.
It was for service in Ireland that deception was greatest. After levying in Chester and once clear of the area, a captain exacted payments from the new recruits and left them with their equipment also probably paid for ; he now had their conduct money as well.
He then briefly hired the correct number of 'soldiers' from local civilians in order to pass muster; the equipment was returned to await the next muster. The captain then went to Ireland and could try for passage money as well; shortfalls - every place in a company in some cases - were covered up for musters by drawing on other companies or engaging native Irishmen.
Pay, known as imprests, was also in the captain's hands, given weekly as a proportion that was made up every six months. The trouble was that the old feudal idea of men in control of their contingents had not been shaken off, despite re-organisation in the army where the state was in charge of recruitment and wages. Both were to be found in English churches and suggest English work under Italian influence. Staples and sneck hooks are generally used to secure movable pieces. Author's collection Carey was dabbling in fraud in Ireland, while Sir Henry Sidney was arranging for a number of new servants to be paid out of the concordatum fund that was designed for unexpected payments but not of the type Sir Henry had in mind.
The corruptions of captains and others were on the agenda in the Normandy campaign, with strict penalties for those caught. However, the brisk muster by Lord Buckhurst came to nought when the troops found themselves stuck in camp because the embarkation was postponed. Then there was the farcical argument by Captain Cosbie that the men should all look similarly smart with new Spanish morions instead of the Italian form with high crest while - even more shocking - some were black while others were not.
The pikemen, moreover, had not been supplied with peascod breastplates. So indignant was he that he had the troops throw away their arm defences and only carry helmet and cuirass. Cosbie even moaned about the lack of stockings in Sussex. Discipline in Tudor armies Discipline was quite high in the Tudor army of The penalties for misdemeanours such as falling asleep on duty were usually simple fines, however, and nothing like the torture and execution that appears in Elizabeth's reign.
Much of the trouble seemed to stem from the German troops under Henry's command. On 15 August there was a riot in the camp near Aire-sur-Lys that resulted in many men dead on both sides. It would have been worse had not the senior officers charged in to break it up, an act for which they were commended by Maximilian.
At first the king simply looked at the last disciplinary code and, after discussion with his commanders, made any necessary alterations, with no oath of obedience necessary from the soldiery. There is no code known for the expedition to Scotland in By the second quarter of the century company commanders were expected to swear in each man. Issuing such codes meant they could be tailored to the occasion. Leicester's code of for service in the Netherlands is one of the most imposing, beginning with a demand that every man receiving pay be bound by the articles.
Discipline was usually the responsibility of the high marshal and provost marshal, and their greatest problem was desertion. Even hanging deserters as an example did not stop the rot. Matters were compounded by captains wanting leave; though the general or garrison commander would sign a pass for pressing matters at home, where no such need was apparent the captains simply went anyway. Shortage and irregularities in pay sparked off mutinies: in Ireland it was simmering almost non-stop. The mutiny in Ostend in even involved the gentlemen volunteers, and their grievances included ghastly victuals and bad quarters.
They seized the governor, Sir John Conway, and despite royal sympathy Conway eventually brought in new troops and hanged one man from each of the nine companies involved. Arguments and duels of honour marked out the men of rank.
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Two further arguments finally led to a duel in which Drury was seriously wounded in the arm. It was amputated and he died two days later. This small garniture is for the field only and is provided with heavy shot-proof extra pieces, presumably for viewing enemy positions during siege work. Originally the steel was russeted, as shown on the Jacob Album design, and the 'scallops' were gilded. Note the slim calves that many such armours possess. When knights remained mounted they served as the shock troops of the army, using their heavy horses and lances to punch a hole through enemy ranks.
However, light cavalry was also used for scouting and skirmishing, with a light spear that was not couched under the arm. The number of men of knightly rank should not be exaggerated. At Flodden in only one of the earl of Surrey's retainers was a man-at-arms.
The rest of the infantry was made up of missile troops, hedges of pikemen and billmen. Henry VIII insisted that men practise regularly with the bow but it was really a losing battle. Groups of handgunners were increasing in number, armed with either heavy muskets or lighter calivers. In Audley's opinion, the bigger the army, the less shot archers and handgunners was required.
These should be set around the other infantry three, four or five deep, two archers and two handgunners if four, but an extra archer if five. Having been harangued by the king and reminded of the plentiful coffers by the treasurer-at-war, the soldiers were roused by their captains, given food and drink and reminded that God was on their side. The council of war would presumably decide the order of battle: a square the 'just square' , a rectangle the 'broad rectangle' or more complex, such as the 'saw-tooth'. It is not certain how commands passed down the ranks but perhaps the sergeant was becoming a useful link in that chain of command.
One formation placed wings of handgunners to filter the enemy on to the main body, as archers had done in the 14th century. France Supplying the army on campaign resulted in a number of clashes with varying outcomes. On 27 June the English supply train bound for the camp at Therouanne, having reached Guines safely, set off under the eyes of Sir Edward Belknap and men.
It was joined by Sir Nicholas Vaux, captain of Guinne castle, with a further 24 horse and 36 foot. Near Ardres the cavalry stopped behind to drink and the infantry became more ragged, little-knowing a French force concealed in the woods was watching. Choosing their moment they fell on the hapless wagons; the carters cut the traces and fled on the carthorses. The English cavalry made a hopeless effort but the archers used the cover of the wagons to hold off the enemy until their arrows ran out.
Sir Nicholas failed in his attempt to rally the foot and both knights had to beat a retreat towards Guines, leaving many dead behind them, not to mention the entire supply train. Sir Rees ap Thomas set out from Therouanne with his light horse but too late - the French had removed the wagons. Henry's commanders learned a bitter lesson: discipline was stepped up and numbers increased significantly, though attacks continued.
The battle of the Spurs, however, so-named from the fact that the French cavalry soon decided to quit the field, with the English horse in hot pursuit resulted from a French attempt to resupply Therouanne. Henry VIII at this engagement surrounded by a bodyguard of mounted archers rather than gentlemen took Maximilian's advice and placed light artillery pieces along a hill to guard the English mounted scouts. The English archers appear to have begun the French debacle but the cavalry sent them into full retreat.
Cruickshank suggested that the panic might have been caused by a general fear of the English. The Venetian ambassador said of Shrewsbury that he came from the family of Talbot and to that day the French still threatened crying babies with the Talbots. Scotland In Scotland the English faced pikemen trained by French captains. Flodden in was the last major battle in Britain in which the longbow would take any great part.
At Flodden the English cannon were hurried into position with commendable speed after marching round a bog. The damage done by the artillery on either side was not convincing, although it seems to have helped unsettle the Borderers and Huntly's Highlanders on the Scottish left, for they moved from their elevated position to launch the first charge. The English archers made some inroads on lightly armed Scots on the left and right of the line, but others were more heavily armoured and thus took fewer casualties.
The English cavalry charge is depicted on the left, with beleaguered Therouanne and siege camp behind. It is embossed with the ragged staff badge of Warwick, which, together with the etched borders, was originally gilded. The horse's shaffron has a bear and ragged staff on the central plate. The armour is already fitted with a tilt visor and a manifer to reinforce the left hand; shown separately are the grandguard and pasguard for the tilt.
They were helped by the Scottish pikes, which might hold off horsemen but English billmen on foot hacked a way through by slicing the tops from the unwieldy pikes. Stanley's column may have displayed an early example of fire and movement - keeping enough troops to occupy the Highlanders' front while slipping the rest round to hit their flank. The battle of Pinkie Cleuch in has been called the first modern battle in Britain, since both sides used large numbers of pikemen and handgunners. The English also backed their army with an accompanying fleet, which bombarded the left of the Scots position from the Firth of Forth.
Now archers, handgunners and artillery combined to stop and reverse the oncoming pike formations once the English cavalry had been repulsed. Spanish horse also galloped along and poured fire into their position. Such was the destruction that some 6, Scots were killed as opposed to Englishmen. The victory allowed Somerset to establish garrisons in many places, but the cost of maintaining them was high and their presence alienated the natives.
French pressure finally forced their abandonment in These defeats show that the disparate elements of the Scottish armies made cohesion difficult. Some, like the Highlanders and Borderers at Flodden, lacked the discipline to stand under fire and threw away their advantage in a wild charge. With so few of knightly rank present it may be thought there was little work for such people, but many knights still led from the front. At Flodden the flight of the Cheshire contingent left gaps that were exploited by the Scottish pikes, but knights such as Sir William FitzWilliam and Sir John Lawrence stood with their men and died to keep the enemy at bay.
Edmund Howard was unhorsed twice or possibly more as he tried to reach his brother the Lord Admiral. Several knights were captured, including Sir Henry Grey. At Pinkie the English heavy horse and demi-lancers crashed into the Scottish pikes. Lord Arthur Grey of Wilton had led the cavalry and came out with a pike wound in the mouth and throat. Sir Andrew Flammach just managed to hold on to the royal standard, assisted by Sir Ralph Coppinger, a Gentleman Pensioner, although the snapped staff was seized by the Scots. Religious conflict, ineptitude and rebellion Religious unrest provided much of the exercise for English armies in the 16th century.
Brandon – Tudor Knight
The southern revolts were a reaction to the spread of Protestantism, while in Elizabeth's reign the flight to England of Mary, Queen of Scots, saw the Northern Rebellion in Alarming as these were, the rebels lacked the calibre and the equipment of the men sent against them. This highly decorated garniture could be made up for the tilt using the reinforcing pieces seen on the right. On the left of this second page are a locking-gauntlet and matching pauldron, for the foot tourney; at the bottom are saddle steels and a demi-shaffron complete with coat-of-arms. The higher the rank, the closer to the centre one was billeted.
Permission British Library rebels were slaughtered at Dussindale by the earl of Warwick. The English nobility did not generally back the rebellions. War in Elizabeth's reign was somewhat hampered by the Queen's natural tendency to hold back from committing her troops even after ordering an advance. This stemmed from her belief that battles could be lost and the consequences might then be infinitely worse. It stopped her commanders from being given free rein to capitalise on a promising situation.
Elizabeth was not wholly to blame for lacklustre performance - indecision and bickering pervaded the entire hierarchy of command, while few of her generals showed any great aptitude in prosecuting war. One such episode took place during the invasion of Scotland in , itself held up for three months, though the lapse was used to prop up the Scottish rebels and boost supplies for the English. At the siege of Leith, French forces came out and challenged the English during truce negotiations, but were successfully pushed back first by artillery and then by heavy horse. However, Lord Grey made no attempt to draw the whole force further out and cut off its retreat; only some French footsoldiers were accidentally caught out after chasing their enemies too far.
The assault on the defences was worse: artillery failed to create wide enough breaches and flanking fire had not been dealt with adequately; all this occurred after Sir Ralph Saddler, Sir James Crofts and Kirkaldy of Grange had viewed the breach and advised Grey of the futility of an attack. To make matters worse, wall heights had been misjudged so that scaling ladders used against undamaged sections of wall were far too short. Grey blamed the duke of Norfolk, a lacklustre self-promoter, who readjusted the facts to clear himself, though both men were to blame.
Grey had actually suggested at one point that Edinburgh was an easier target, though an attack would have jeopardised the regent and friendly Scots there. In the earls of Northumberland and Westmorland raised a northern rebellion in favour of Mary, Queen of Scots. Lord Hunsdon quelled a smaller rebellion in The earl of Sussex invaded Scotland that year to chase the Borderers who had aided the Northern Rebellion and to back anti-French feeling.
Foreign assistance In , volunteers crossed to the Low Countries, soon aided by Sir Humphrey Gilbert with 1, additional volunteer troops, to block Spanish occupation of the country. Further foreign adventures occurred, beginning in when the earl of Leicester was sent to the Netherlands to assist the Dutch against the Spanish. In Peregrine Bertie, Lord Willoughby, an able soldier who had proved his ability in the Netherlands, was sent to assist the Protestant Henry of Navarre to keep the French throne. The expedition should have been called off in late September when help was no longer required but Willoughby, with thoughts of honour in a glorious expedition, ignored the message from Sir Edward Stafford and set sail.
Once in France the English troops joined those of Henry II of France and set out on 11 October; in 40 days and with full kit they marched miles in cold, wet weather with muddy roads, little rest and sniping from French country folk who prevented attempts to leave in search of food. The suburbs of Paris fell but the king refused to seize the city itself for fear of damage and loss of good will; of 20 towns invested only four put up any resistance. Vendome fell to artillery fire that breached the walls.
Le Mans fell to barrage, Willoughby ordering bridges of barrels lashed to ladders to take his men over the river on their side. At Alencon, Willoughby and his marshal made a special engine to pull down the drawbridge, enabling the fort to be seized, though their machine was lost the night before it could be employed on the town drawbridge. Although the King's troops were repulsed from the walls the garrison surrendered. The final stronghold, Falaise, was bombarded until two breaches were made, both so dangerous that a few enemy soldiers could hold them.
It is shown with a dagger found in the same area. A later copy. The Board of Trustees of the Armouries, 1. A lone musketeer carried on firing until five cannon blasted his tower into the moat, from which he escaped, albeit a prisoner. The success for Henry was little owed to the English and Willoughby had lost more men from illness and hostile peasants than from battle.
It is doubtful if the once-feared name of the English soldiery still had much impact. The only real battle in which Elizabethan troops were involved took place at Nieuport, Holland, on 2 July Sir Francis Vere had brought over an English regiment to assist Prince Maurice of Nassau and acquitted himself well on 24 January , when he pursued the Spanish invaders. Having ordered Dutch musketeers to keep up fire along the trees, he skirmished with the enemy squares.
When the Prince's cavalry arrived Vere charged the rear of the squares while the Prince took the flanks. The Spanish musketeers fled and the allies got amongst the pikes. The Dutch cavalry chased after the retreating Spaniards but Vere held his horsemen to check the counterattack he knew would come. Sure enough, Spanish horse came after the Dutchmen but turned back when they saw Vere.
In July a major clash occurred by the dunes near the sea, nine miles from Ostend. Vere held two ridges with his advanced guard to wear down the Spaniards but as things grew hot the reinforcements did not arrive and some 1, English troops found themselves holding back the whole Spanish army. Wounded twice in the leg, Vere encouraged his men but was forced to withdraw.
When word finally reached the rear, counterattacks were launched that caught the tired Spaniards and broke them. Three large naval and military expeditions also took place. It was an opportunity to make large amounts from plunder, not just for the nobles indeed, Essex and Howard mainly funded it with this reimbursement in mind but also for the ordinary soldiers. The target was decided as Cadiz and Sir Francis Vere, the veteran commander in the Netherlands, withdrew 2, tried troops from there to provide experience in the force destined for Spain.
Vere was desperate to go in first at dawn and even cut his cable when the anchor jammed in order to beat Sir Walter Raleigh. Essex and Vere landed to survey the beachhead before ordering in the first wave of the better fighting men. Sir Conyers Clifford was sent to seize the narrow eastern peninsula and block Spanish help.
A Spanish body attacked the assault force but retreated back, clambering over the rampart. This advertisement of entry was not lost and English troops followed and gained the wall top. Essex then joined them, to be confronted by a 20ft drop, but luckily Vere had sent men round to find and force a gate, which they did. The message being lost he charged the main gates with his main force and broke in. Essex, having arrived by this less precipitous route, then impetuously charged into the market place with only 30 or so men, but luck and the methodical Vere who called in his own soldiers as he advanced was then able to scatter opposition and join up with Essex and capture the town and castle within a day.
English troops stationed there from Elizabeth's early reign faced Shane O'Neill's uprising in and the Desmond War of At first Irish soldiers were equipped with close-combat weapons together with bows and javelins. However, later in the century Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, had welded together a force equipped with muskets and calivers and including many men trained in Spain; not only were the Irish well drilled in pikes and musketry but they used the boggy, woody terrain to advantage. In the Nine Years War broke out and the tactics were put to good use.
In O'Neill ambushed another English force on the march at Yellow Ford and caused heavy casualties by both musketry and close combat. Provoked, the earl of Essex arrived with another army in , but BELOW A woodcut from Derricke's Image of Ireland shows an English force with demi-lancers in three-quarter armour, pikemen and caliver men. He is probably dressed for the Accession Day tournament of , in a black surcoat decorated with silver threads and pearls. National Gallery of Ireland O'Neill h a d the good sense to bide his time a n d wait.
Next year Essex was replaced by Lord Mountjoy, who t h o u g h t brutality was an effective weapon. H e also tried to p e n the cattle a n d so starve the Irish rebels b u t his move o n Ulster o n 2 October was defeated at Moyry Pass by fire from O'Neill's musketeers protected b e h i n d field fortifications.
Mountjoy moved to confront a Spanish force of 3, m e n that landed at Kinsale in September and, weakened by sickness, would have fared badly if O'Neill's relief force h a d blockaded him when it arrived. However, although n o t in the kind of terrain that suited Celtic fighting, O'Neill decided to take the offensive.
H e bungled a night march against the English camp a n d Mountjoy reacted swiftly. T h e cavalry chased the Irish horse from the field while the Irish infantry, o r d e r e d into Spanish squares by O'Neill, could n o t cope efficiently. O'Neill's change to the tactical defensive, as opposed to the strategic defence of Ulster a n d the tactical offensive, h a d b e e n m o r e than his m e n could achieve; o n e defeat h a d b r o k e n the spell of O'Neill's victories. Two years later h e surrendered.
This folly, together with p o o r c o m m a n d structure, h a d come u p against a powerful royal army backed by naval support. Fighting for h o n o u r a n d for the good, to protect w o m e n a n d the poor, h a d always b e e n an ethos that some knights aspired to and others ignored.
Battlefields were now largely the preserve of professional soldiers, with even less r o o m for knights to display chivalry, partly because there were fewer knights involved in active warfare. In the Middle Ages n o self-respecting knight used a bow or crossbow in battle as a matter of course; by the later 16th century Sir J o h n Smythe was being depicted in the Jacob Album with pistol in h a n d , hardly a weapon for close combat.
Those m e n of the rank of knight still felt part of an elite g r o u p b u t it included many ranks of society, from the king down t h r o u g h his dukes a n d earls to lesser landowners a n d m e n from mercantile backgrounds who h a d d o n e good service. Wealth a n d position in society n o longer devolved purely from landholding. Knights were at first still m a d e by other knights, such as when Charles B r a n d o n d u b b e d J o h n Dudley in for his valour at the crossing of the Somme.
But knights finally lost this right during the reign of Elizabeth, when all applications h a d to be passed to the Privy Council for vetting. Lavish banquets, fountains of wine, tournaments, archery and even wrestling between the two kings m a d e a magnificent pageant that attempted to offer the idea of friendship. Chivalry could also be seen in the field - in the earl of Essex r a m m e d his pike into the gates of Lisbon to offer single combat on behalf of his mistress.
Bravado could be lethal, however - at Zutphen in , Sir Philip Sidney's decision to follow the new thinking and leave off limb defences resulted in his death. Sir J o h n Smythe felt that, h a d Sidney worn his cuisses, the musket ball would have b e e n sufficiently slowed down and not broken his thighbone. Royal prisoners, dukes, lieutenants general, great constables etc.
Tudor Knight by Osprey Publishing | Hobby Bunker
They must be taken to the king or c o m m a n d e r immediately in r e t u r n for a reward. T h e n o t i o n of chivalric behaviour survived most noticeably in siege warfare. T h e garrison at T h e r o u a n n e was allowed to m a r c h o u t 23 August although this could have b e e n also because of their strong position. Made at Augsburg but with additions at Greenwich. This is a light cavalry armour with pieces of exchange for an officer of infantry's armour. The burgonet helmet has a falling buffe. A wheellock pistol is carried. These books gave the hope that chivalry could be revived as it had once been; indeed such medieval works managed in England to survive the Renaissance, even though its classical leanings spelled the end of chivalric literature across the Channel in France.
Already in a newly Protestant England Roger Ascham in The Scholemaster regretted the day when Mallory's work was read in the court at the expense of the Bible, and linked the Middle Ages with Catholicism, when chivalric works came from idle monks and wanton canons. The right pauldron is not cut away for a lance and there is no lance-rest. Leg-armour is discarded since blows below the barrier are forbidden. Note the elaborate helmet plume. He holds a pike, while his sword scabbard has the side-piece attached to the broad hanger, which in turn has been unhooked from its ring at his belt.
The Board of Trustees of the Armouries, I. In Spain, Cervantes' Don Quixote of was the greatest literary knock to the ideals of chivalry, which would also soon disappear from 17th-century Puritan England, until revived in the 19th century. Its museum in Leeds holds a number of Greenwich armours including both the armours of Henry VIII, as well as many from European centres for comparison, together with all types of weapons. There are also other Greenwich items. Many of the munition armour pieces, as well as weapons of the king's guard, can also be seen. Kelvingrove in Glasgow has the wellpreserved armour of the earl of Pembroke.
It also has the best-preserved Greenwich garniture, that of the earl of Cumberland, plus other Greenwich armours. Anime Cuirass made from several horizontal lames. Armet Closed helmet that opens at each side to be put on. Arming doublet Lightly padded doublet worn beneath armour, with mail gussets or sleeves and with arming points attached. Arming partlet Quilted collar worn below a plate collar. Arquebus Longarm, usually a matchlock of varying bore. Backplate Defence for the back of the torso.
Baldric Belt worn diagonally across the shoulder. Bard Full plate armour for a horse. Base Skirt, either of cloth or steel. Basinet Conical or globular open-faced helmet that extended down at the sides and back. Bevor Defence for the lower face and chin. Boar-spear Broad-bladed spear with two lugs below the blade to prevent a boar running up the shaft.
Bodkin An instrument for pricking. Breastplate Defence for the front of the torso. Brigandine Armour consisting of a canvas jacket inside which is riveted by many small plates.