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But because the outgoing signal is not known it takes more processing to match it to the return. A second approach is to use a wide range of sequential frequencies; this is easier to match but more prone to interference.

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The device creates what seems like random noise, but which is actually generated by a fixed algorithm. It is matched by a receiver using the same algorithm. Because the outgoing signal is known, it is as easy to process as spread-spectrum signals. It is also irregular, like random noise, meaning reflections are less likely to interfere with each other. In tests, the chaotic signal produced better results than the other approaches.

This means the radar can see reliably through more layers. As chaos signals do not interfere with each other, many could operate in the same area. Karl Woodbridge, who researches radar systems at University College London, warns that there may be some way to go before practical hardware emerges.

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In addition to the labelling requirements of RSS-Gen, the GPR device user manual shall also contain the following statements or equivalent:. This Ground Penetrating Radar Device shall be operated only when in contact with or within 1 m of the ground. This Ground Penetrating Radar Device shall be operated only by law enforcement agencies, scientific research institutes, commercial mining companies, construction companies, and emergency rescue or firefighting organizations.

In addition to the labelling requirements of RSS-Gen, the in-wall radar imaging device user manual shall also contain the following or equivalent statements:. This In-wall Radar Imaging Device shall be operated where the device is directed at the wall and in contact with or within 20 cm of the wall surface.

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This In-wall Radar Imaging Device shall be operated only by law enforcement agencies, scientific research institutes, commercial mining companies, construction companies, and emergency rescue or firefighting organizations. Through-wall radar imaging device : a field disturbance sensor used to transmit energy through an opaque structure, such as a wall or a ceiling, to detect the movement or location of persons or objects that are located on the other side.

In addition to the labelling requirements of RSS-Gen, the device user manual shall also contain the following statement or equivalent:. This Through-wall Radar Imaging Device shall be operated only by law enforcement agencies or emergency rescue or firefighting organizations that are under a local, provincial or federal authority.

The equipment is to be operated only in providing services and for necessary training operations. Radar surveillance device : a field disturbance sensor used to establish a stationary radio-frequency perimeter field that is used for security purposes to detect the intrusion of persons or objects. This Radar Surveillance Device shall be installed in a manner that minimizes radiated emissions beyond the property line of the area under surveillance. This Radar Surveillance Device shall be operated only by military, law enforcement, emergency rescue or firefighting organizations that are under a local, provincial or federal authority.

Medical radar imaging device : a field disturbance sensor used to detect the location or movement of objects inside the body of a human or an animal.

UWB RADAR Receiver Architecture

This Medical Radar Imaging Device shall be operated only in hospitals and health-care facilities, and only at the direction or under the supervision of a health-care practitioner. Techniques and procedures for measuring average and peak transmission power levels from devices using UWB technology are provided in the Annex. This annex provides techniques and procedures for measuring average and peak transmission power levels from devices using UWB technology.

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The reference to a one millisecond or less averaging time denotes the integration time period for each bin on the spectrum analyzer. Equivalent isotropically radiated power e.

Introduction to Ultra-Wideband Radar Systems

Measuring transmissions from devices using UWB technology requires a measurement system that comprises a receiving antenna and a test receiver. Several receiving antennas, each optimized over a distinct frequency range, are required when measuring the complete spectrum of the UWB device. The measurement receiver may be a spectrum analyzer, an electromagnetic interference test receiver, a vector signal analyzer or an oscilloscope.

The low power levels of UWB transmissions make it desirable to take the measurement in an anechoic or a semi-anechoic chamber. Footnote 3 A measurement taken in an anechoic chamber must correlate with a measurement taken in a semi-anechoic chamber. This is usually done by adjusting for the effect of the ground screen in a semi-anechoic environment or an open area test site.

In cases where the transmission level from the UWB device is too weak to overcome the noise of a conventional spectrum analyzer, a low-noise amplifier LNA shall be used. The LNA shall have sufficient bandwidth at the output of the measurement antenna to reduce the effective noise figure of the overall measurement system.

Ultra-Wideband Impulse Radar Through-Wall Detection of Vital Signs | Scientific Reports

This increased sensitivity of the measurement system can make it particularly vulnerable to ambient environmental signals. If strong ambient signals are present in the measurement environment, an appropriate RF filter shall be placed ahead of the LNA. Doing so will provide the pre-selection necessary to prevent amplifier overload while permitting signals in the frequency range of interest to pass through the measurement system.

The insertion loss associated with this filter shall be minimal and shall also be considered when determining the overall sensitivity of the measurement system. The following provisions apply when measuring average and peak transmission power levels from any device using UWB technology: Footnote 4. Ground penetrating radar GPR and wall imaging radar devices shall be compliance-tested under conditions that are representative of normal operating conditions.


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One method is to place the GPR or wall imaging radar device directly over a bed of sand of at least 50 cm in depth. The area of the sand-bed should be adequate to accommodate the DUT transducer antenna. Measurements are then performed at an adequate number of radials and antenna height steps to determine the maximum radiated emission level.

If this methodology precludes the use of a ground screen, the measured data should be further adjusted to account for the ground screen contribution.


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