Students can apply for a position and be rewarded or promoted for a job well done.
Some classroom jobs might involve passing out materials, documenting or taking notes, managing a classroom library, filing papers or helping with a bulletin board. Jobs in a responsive classroom can accommodate multiple learning styles such as artistic, kinesthetic and verbal. Many teachers, especially at the elementary level, seat or group students along gender lines. However, not everyone fits traditional gender categories.
Some students may feel they are truly a different gender than their physical bodies suggest; others might not fit neatly into either the male or female identity category. Using gender-neutral categories or allowing students to choose the group with which they identify affirms the experiences of all students.
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- Dialogue in Intercultural Communities?
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Differences shape who we are and what we know. Life, history, society and power cannot be understood from a single perspective; we need multiple viewpoints to truly see the world. Because of this, inclusive classrooms must function as learning communities built on shared inquiry and dialogue. Dialogue is more than conversation.
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It is also different than debate, in which someone wins and someone loses. Dialogue requires openness to new ideas and collective learning. This is not an easy practice; for students and teachers to engage in dialogue, they must build and exercise specific skills:. Shared inquiry and dialogue support two of the four anti-bias domains: Diversity and Action. Building the skills necessary to explore multiple perspectives fosters critical thinking, complex textual understanding and appreciation for diversity.
Dialogue also supports active listening, respectful sharing and conflict resolution. A culture of shared inquiry offers a lived example of meaningful collaborative work and a model for community building. Because many students experience classrooms that do not value shared inquiry and dialogue, it is important for teachers to create a safe environment before asking students to engage in this work. Active listening is a way of hearing and responding to another person that requires the listener to stop thinking about his or her own ideas and focus on the speaker.
Active listening behavior includes asking good questions, listening without judgment and paraphrasing. These behaviors can be modeled through the use of talking circles or ordered sharing.
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Short practice activities can also strengthen active listening skills. To most teachers, class participation means contributing to discussions, volunteering to answer questions or otherwise engaging in verbal exchanges. However, participation does not have to be verbal; gender, culture and ability may affect student comfort levels with verbal communication.
Modeling equity and inclusiveness calls for a broader definition of participation that includes active listening, written response, artistic response and involvement in small groups. These options should all be valued as classroom participation. Teachers need to prepare for possible conflicts or hurt feelings when exploring personally or politically sensitive material. It is also helpful for teachers to check in with students who seem upset as a result of a class activity or conversation. Social-emotional learning, respect and safety are as important as literacy and critical thinking skills when exploring an anti-bias curriculum.
Research shows that students need to feel both physically and emotionally safe to learn. This includes safety from stereotype threat, harassment and exclusion. Work on classroom climate and social-emotional learning cannot simply focus on empathy, kindness and inclusion.
Social difference and bias underlie many unsafe and exclusionary behaviors; these issues need to be discussed explicitly. Appreciation for multicultural perspectives is also critical when teaching about relationship building, conflict management and community.
This helps students learn to draw on many traditions and experiences and address social divisions in the classroom. Prioritizing social and emotional safety supports three of the four anti-bias domains: Identity, Diversity and Action. This practice supports a classroom community in which students feel secure enough to engage in respectful, productive conversations about identity and diversity.
This work also models actions necessary to nurture inclusive, respectful connections across lines of difference. A contract of norms and behaviors can help define the classroom community as a socially and emotionally safe place. Students should participate in shaping the contract, identifying a list of agreements about how class members will treat one another, talk together and so on.
Issues such as identity, difference and power should be addressed explicitly. Many powerful anti-bullying and community- building curricula, when integrated into the regular school curriculum, can build social-emotional skills and teach students to manage conflict.
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Below are a few suggested resources. Mix It Up is a Teaching Tolerance program designed to help students identify, question and cross social boundaries. Launched in , Mix It Up recognizes that some of the deepest social divisions in schools are found in the cafeteria. Each fall, Teaching Tolerance sponsors a national Mix It Up at Lunch Day when schools around the country encourage students to move out of their comfort zones and share a meal with peers who are different from them. Discipline and behavior management are central to classroom culture.
How are students encouraged to treat one another?
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What happens when they make poor choices or present behavioral challenges? What shapes student-teacher interactions? And what happens when conflicts arise? This critical practice asks teachers to think about behavior management in light of five key principles:. Chapter 4. Organisational meetings 1: Promoting participation.
Chapter 5. Organisational meetings 2: Conflict management. Chapter 6. Activities 1: Promoting participation. Chapter 7.
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Activities 2: Coordinating reflection. Chapter 8. Activities 3: Conflict management. Chapter 9. Chapter Activities 5: Interpreting as mediation? From the firm theoretical and methodological stance to the focused case studies, the volume productively traverses this timely and important terrain.
Donal Carbaugh , University of Massachusetts Amherst. Alan Prout , University of Warwick. The insights provided by the detailed analysis will inspire many researchers in different fields in their future work on intercultural communication and education. The studies also have wide-ranging implications for policy and practice concerning young people in a global context. Zhu Hua , University of London.
No author info given Publications Received. Block and thread intercultural narratives and positioning: conversations with newly arrived postgraduate students. Baraldi, Claudio Intercultural education and communication in second language interactions.